HONOUR KILLING: ILLITERACY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF WOMEN SUBORDINATION IN TRIBAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN
This study was carried out with the sole objective to determine the relationship between education and pervasiveness of honour killing in tribal areas of Pakistan under interpretative methodology and qualitative tools of data collection i.e. in-depth interviews. A sample size of 45 participants consisting upon 38 Maliks and 07 government officials from political administration was selected through purposive sampling method. Education is greatly associated with the mitigation of crime and deviancy from society in a positive direction. Likewise, it can play its role in decreasing the rate of honour killing by discouraging such barbaric customary practices. However, with special reference to tribal areas of Pakistan and the practice of honour killing, education does not play its role in true spirit as required. Both educated and illiterate population of tribal areas equally endorsed the norms related to honour and are being involved in honour killing. Moreover, educated women in tribal areas are more prone to honour killing, as they goes beyond the wishes of family patriarch in matters permitted by the religion, values and state constitution. Further, they less likely observed the established norms related to veil and preferred to wear ‘Paranony’ in place of ‘Burqa’. Teaching materials about honour conception and honour killing is neither the part of curriculum nor taught within the class room environment. Lastly, the study concluded that sometimes parents avoids to send their daughters for getting formal education with the fear that after getting education they might violate the established pattern about honour norms. Inclusion of teaching materials about barbaric customary practices in syllabus, creating awareness among the people regarding ultra-judicial killing of women, importance of human life and understanding of women in light of the teachings of Islam and medical sciences were forwarded some of the recommendations in light of the study findings.