REVIEW OF PROVISIONS OF NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICIES, DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION AND CHALLENGES

Authors

  • Tahira Bibi, Khadija Awan, Muhammad Mahmood

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52337/pjer.v5i2.518

Abstract

The review and synthesize of policies indicate that all national education policies emphasized to enhance access to free and compulsory education, literacy, technical and vocational education, science education, technological development, and quality of education. Hence, diversity can be found in these policies, first education conference, 1947 focused on free and compulsory education, National Commission for education (1959) visualized free and compulsory education, diversification of secondary education and re-organization of examination. National Education Policy, (1970) focused on science and technology, whereas National Education Policy (1972- 80) emphasize on nationalization of private institutions. National Education Policy, (1979) focused on Islamic and spiritual education and Urdu as medium of instruction. National Education Policy (1992) and (1998-2010) policy emphasized on demandoriented curriculum and equal opportunity to higher education and having research and innovation for sustainable development of the economy. The desired result of these policies interventions could not be achieved due to manifold reasons including lack of political commitment at the higher level, lack of visionary leadership, lack of coordination among provinces/region consequently implementation gap, weak governance, low allocation of resources (only 2.2% of GDP) and complicated release procedures, political instability resultantly change of policy with change of government, discontinuity of policies, poor follow up and lack of monitoring and evaluation at provincial/regional level.

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Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Tahira Bibi, Khadija Awan, Muhammad Mahmood. (2022). REVIEW OF PROVISIONS OF NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICIES, DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION AND CHALLENGES. Pakistan Journal of Educational Research, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.52337/pjer.v5i2.518